Scandinavian Internationalist Diplomacy, 1920s-1970s
Scandinavian Multilateral Diplomacy: from the League of Nations to post-war IOs
2-4 September 2020, University of Copenhagen
Organizers: Haakon A. Ikonomou and Rasmus S. Søndergaard
The Scandinavian countries are often seen as being among the most consistent promoters of internationalist solutions to global challenges and can boast some of the most renowned internationalist figures of the 20th Century. Scandinavia, moreover, sees itself, and is often recognized, as a region representing and promoting a certain set of values (such as democracy, social equality and progressive ideals on rights) on the international stage. While there are truths in these stereotypes, the role and reputation of Scandinavian international politics developed in a complex symbiosis between the rise of international organizations (IOs) and professionalization of foreign services (as part of the construction of the modern state) from the turn of the last century onwards. There is a large body of literature on how the various (non-state) internationalist strands developing from the late 1800s onwards were absorbed into the corporatist structures of the Scandinavian post-war welfare state. However, very little research exists, that (a) studies Scandinavian internationalism as a transnational historical phenomenon, (b) that is intrinsically linked to the rise of IOs and (c) is rooted in expanding diplomatic practices.This workshop trilogy brings these elements together in a systematic fashion, to study the emergence of Scandinavian internationalist diplomacy between the 1920s and the 1970s. By centring on a wider conception of diplomatic institutions, actors and practices and positioning Scandinavia within the new literature on internationalisms and international organizations, the workshop series aims to study Scandinavian internationalism as evidenced in diplomatic practices and exploring it as a distinct realization of national interests – neither a priori benign nor malign – in its transnational context.
Screen of the Participants in the Symposium of Copenhagen September 2-4 , 2020
Dag Hammarskjöld and Diplomacy for Peacekeeping in Africa
Some insights into the contribution of the Scandinavian Internationalist Diplomacy during the Decolonization and Cold War Era
Dr Mohieddine Hadhri Professor of Diplomacy and International Relations at the University of Tunis
On September 18, 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary-General of the United Nations died in a tragic air accident while on a peacekeeping mission in the Congo, an African country in the midst of a civil war. Half a century later, the name of the Swedish diplomat remains more than ever associated with the concept of preventive diplomacy as well as that of the "doctrine of peacekeeping", theorized by Dag Hammarskjöld himself. This remarkable legacy of the Swedish diplomat continues to inspire the action of his successors and to fascinate diplomatic and academic circles around the world today. In addition, the action of Dag Hammarskjöld and his diplomatic work remain just as linked to Africa, continent for which he lost his life and on which, fifty years later, nearly 23 among the 61 operations of maintenance or peacemaking implemented by the UN were brought about by African crises.Therefore, the purpose of this paper aims at investigating on the basis of archives, publications and UN resolutions the following three key issues :1-
Some insights on the pioneering role of Dag Hammarskjöld in the implementation of UN preventive and peacekeeping diplomacy but also on the exceptional qualities of the Swedish diplomat as a theoretician, man of action and visionary of peaceful world. 2-
A retrospective look dealing with the role of the UN diplomacy in the maintenance of peace in Africa and the determinant contribution of Dag Hammarskjold in his quality of UN Secretary General in the management of the decolonization crisis and Cold wars. 3-
Quelques réflexions sur la portée de la contribution de la diplomatie internationaliste scandinave dans les années 1950: quelles évaluations peut-on faire de la diplomatie de maintien de la paix sur le continent africain à travers le rôle clé de Dag Hammarskjold considéré comme un grand homme politique et homme politique scandinave? In particulars , this paper will provide insights into the different aspects of UN action for peacekeeping through the military interventions undertaken by the United Nations in this continent focusing in particulars on the following events : Suez Crisis in Egypt October 1956, International crisis of Bizerte in Tunisia July 1961, Congo Civil War 1960-64 . Such reflections are also intended to answer to the questions raised by the second workshop : To what extent Dag Hammarskjold peacekeeping strategy in the fifties has served as a model of Scandinavian multilateral diplomacy and “ spirit “ in spearheading internationalist peace initiatives in the world .? Keywords:
Dag Hammarskjöld, UN, Africa, peacekeepers, peacekeeping, Scandinavian multilateral diplomacy.